The Northrop later Northrop Grumman B-2 Spiritalso known as the Stealth Bomberis an American heavy strategic bomberfeaturing low observable stealth technology designed for penetrating dense anti-aircraft defenses ; it is a flying wing design with a crew of two. The B-2 is the only acknowledged aircraft that can carry large air-to-surface standoff weapons in a stealth configuration. Development started under the "Advanced Technology Bomber" ATB project during the Carter administration ; its expected performance was one of the President's reasons for the cancellation of the Mach 2 capable B-1A bomber.
The ATB project continued during the Reagan administrationbut worries about delays in its introduction led to the reinstatement of the B-1 program. Program costs rose throughout development.Ny ig stats apk free download
Because of its considerable capital and operating costs, the project was controversial in the U. The winding-down of the Cold War in the latter portion of the s dramatically reduced the need for the aircraft, which was designed with the intention of penetrating Soviet airspace and attacking high-value targets.
During the late s and s, Congress slashed plans to purchase bombers to Ina B-2 was destroyed in a crash shortly after takeoffthough the crew ejected safely. It entered service in as the second aircraft designed to have advanced stealth technology after the Lockheed F Nighthawk attack aircraft. Though designed originally as primarily a nuclear bomber, the B-2 was first used in combat dropping conventional, non-nuclear ordnance in the Kosovo War in It later served in IraqAfghanistanand Libya.
By the mids, military aircraft designers had learned of a new method to avoid missiles and interceptors, known today as " stealth ". The concept was to build an aircraft with an airframe that deflected or absorbed radar signals so that little was reflected back to the radar unit. An aircraft having radar stealth characteristics would be able to fly nearly undetected and could be attacked only by weapons and systems not relying on radar.
Although other detection measures existed, such as human observation, infrared scannersacoustic locatorstheir relatively short detection range or poorly-developed technology allowed most aircraft to fly undetected, or at least untracked, especially at night. Lockheed had experience in this field due to developing the Lockheed A and SRwhich included a number of stealthy features, notably its canted vertical stabilizers, the use of composite materials in key locations, and the overall surface finish in radar-absorbing paint.
A key improvement was the introduction of computer models used to predict the radar reflections from flat surfaces where collected data drove the design of a "faceted" aircraft. Development of the first such designs started in with "the Hopeless Diamond ", a model Lockheed built to test the concept. Northrop and Lockheed were awarded contracts in the first round of testing. Lockheed received the sole award for the second test round in April leading to the Have Blue program and eventually the F stealth attack aircraft.
Bythese programs had progressed to a position in which a long-range strategic stealth bomber appeared viable. President Carter became aware of these developments duringand it appears to have been one of the major reasons the B-1 was canceled. During the presidential election campaign inRonald Reagan repeatedly stated that Carter was weak on defense, and used the B-1 as a prime example.
In response, on 22 August the Carter administration publicly disclosed that the United States Department of Defense was working to develop stealth aircraft, including a bomber.
The bomber's design was changed in the mids when the mission profile was changed from high-altitude to low-altitude, terrain-following. During its design and development, the Northrop B-2 program was a gray project before its revelation to the public.
Both during development and in service, considerable effort has been devoted to maintaining the security of the B-2's design and technologies. Staff working on the B-2 in most, if not all, capacities have to achieve a level of special-access clearance, and undergo extensive background checks carried out by a special branch of the Air Force.
For the manufacturing, a former Ford automobile assembly plant in Pico Rivera, Californiawas acquired and heavily rebuilt; the plant's employees were sworn to complete secrecy regarding their work.
To avoid the possibility of suspicion, components were typically purchased through front companiesmilitary officials would visit out of uniform, and staff members were routinely subjected to polygraph examinations.
The secrecy extended so far that access to nearly all information on the program by both Government Accountability Office GAO and virtually all members of Congress itself was severely limited until the mids.
Ina Northrop employee, Thomas Cavanaugh was arrested for attempting to sell classified information to the Soviet Union ; the information was taken from Northrop's Pico Rivera, California factory. This viewing was heavily restricted, and guests were not allowed to see the rear of the B However, Aviation Week editors found that there were no airspace restrictions above the presentation area and took aerial photographs of the aircraft's then-secret rear section  with suppressed engine exhausts.
In OctoberNoshir Gowadiaa design engineer who worked on the B-2's propulsion system, was arrested for selling B-2 related classified information to foreign countries.
A procurement of aircraft was planned in the mids, but was later reduced to Bush announced B-2 production would be limited to 20 aircraft.
Photo Requirements for US Visitor Visa - Everything You Need to Know
The program was the subject of public controversy for its cost to American taxpayers.Depending on the US Embassy you apply from and the type of US visathe photos required might be physical photos or digital photos. Physical photos mean that you have to print them and send them as part of the visa application, while digital photos can be attached online when you submit your Form DS or Form DS Neutral face expression and facing the camera. If you already have a physical photo which meets the physical photo requirements, you can scan it and make it as follows:.
In addition to the standard requirements, there are also requirements for the types of visas. Some of the requirements related to US nonimmigrant visa pictures include:. For those who are entering the Diversity Visa DV program or lottery, the photo has to meet these requirements:.
Make photo for US Visa 2x2 inch (51x51mm) in 2 seconds
If you get selected for the Diversity Visa Program, you should bring more photos that comply with the photo requirements for US visa. The US visa photo requirements are quite extensive, so it is difficult to fulfill them all by yourself. That is why it is better to seek professional photo services to take the photos and submit them to the US Embassy you are applying to. There are many professional services that will take photos of you which fulfill the requirements and send you a digital copy as well as provide physical photos.
They are more expensive than taking photos of yourself, you will have a greater chance that the photos will be accepted by the Embassy. On the other hand, if you submit photos taken with bad quality cameras, the US Embassy might reject them and you will have to submit them again.
This will increase your processing time and it will take longer for you to get your visa. So, the best way to go about submitting your photos is to take them to professional stores. However, if you take the photos yourself, then you must make sure that your camera is of high quality, that all requirements are fulfilled, and that you do not change your appearance using computer software, except to remove the red-eye effect. If you are also applying for your baby or toddler to have a US visa, you must also submit photos of them.
This can be tricky as babies and toddlers do not sit still for long, so you can either try to take the photos yourself or seek professional services. The requirements and tips for baby and toddler visa photos are as follows:. If your photo is not older than 6 months, but your appearance has changed significantly then you might have to submit a new photo. This would be necessary if you have done the following:.
You will not have to submit a new photo if you dyed your hair or grew a beard. Teenagers will also not need to submit new photos if they had a change in appearance due to a normal growth process.
As long as you are recognizable in the photos, they will be acceptable. However, the US Embassy is the one which decides whether your photos are acceptable or not. Last Updated on August 26, When taking photographs, you pay attention to composition in the viewfinder. When it's time to print those photos, however, the full image may not be what appears on the print paper, depending on the size you choose.
The reason for this is that the ratio of the paper's width to height may not match the ratio of the viewfinder's width to height. As a result, a portion of the captured image may be cropped out when it is printed on paper. To further complicate matters, a 5x7 print does not use the same crop as an 8x10, and neither is the same as a 4x6. In order to ensure your photo prints come out the way you intended when you took the picture, it's important to understand how cropping works in relation to standard print sizes.
Although there are plenty of exceptions, most photo prints are made in one of the following sizes:. This is the reason 4x6 has become such a popular print size. It has a width-to-height ratio when the paper is viewed in the landscape, or horizontal, orientation in the portrait, or vertical, orientation. This standard ratio is a hold-over from the days of film. A single frame of 35mm film has a ratio of Since this was the most popular film among consumers, digital camera makers naturally chose it when technology began to switch.
When you look through a viewfinder, the ratio is the approximate size you see and use to compose your pictures."B" Series Paper Size Explained - B0, B1, B2, B3, B4, B5, B6, B7, B8, B9, B10 Paper Size
A 4x6 print is considered "full-frame" for a standard digital photo. When you print an image to 5x7 or 8x10 size, for instance, the ratios are different than the ratio of the 4x6 format.
When comparing print sizes, thinking in terms of the width multiplication factor is helpful. With the 5x7 example, the multiplication factor is 1. Photo paper can be printed in either a portrait or landscape orientation, though.
Because of this, it's best to ignore the proper orientation for an individual photo. Instead, use the longest side of the paper as the width and the shortest side as the height when comparing prints with the viewfinder. If your camera has a viewfinder with a ratio of width to height, you should be able to print the entire uncropped image on 4x6 paper or 20x30 paper because they have the same multiplication factor.
That assumes, however, that the camera's aspect ratio matches its viewfinder ratio. Professional photographers will often tell you that the best way to deal with these different proportions is to "shoot wide. This will help you retain the most important part of your image.Which detail from Heart of Darkness shows the ineffectiveness of the colonizers. All Rights Reserved. The material on this site can not be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used, except with prior written permission of Multiply.
Hottest Questions. Previously Viewed. Unanswered Questions. Digital Cameras. Wiki User October 19, PM. That is the Size of B2 size Paper sheet. Size of B2 size Photograph is 5 cm x 7 cm. The B2 is nowhere near the size or weight of an airbus. It is smaller in every respect. Asked in Countries, States, and Cities What is the size of a but? The size or dimension of the word 'but' is three letters.Sap hana date functions
The word for a person's backside or buttocks is referred to as a 'butt' so it's size or dimension would be 4 letters in length. Asked in Math and Arithmetic A location that has no size? A point in math has no linear dimension hence size.Vauxhall vivaro wiring diagram diagram base website wiring
Asked in Math and Arithmetic, Geometry How do you find the missing dimension? To find a missing dimension of an object find the size of its covering properties. Asked in Science, Definitions What does size mean? The magnitude of a dimension or attribute. Asked in Clothing What does size W mean? The size W refers to the size of a pair of pants, where the waist dimension is 25 inches and the length dimension is 32 inches. This method of sizing is typically seen in the United Kingdom.
Asked in Math and Arithmetic What is a term that has no size or dimension? Infinity sounds correct. Asked in Physics How would a being in a 4th spatial dimension perceive us? Probably the same way we perceive a photograph of a person.
It'd seem flat. Asked in English Spelling and Pronunciation How do you spell dimsionsion?Please Note: Some embassies or consulates no longer require you to upload a digital photograph while filling out the DS form.
To learn more visit: Changes to DS Form. A digital photograph is required for each applicant while applying for a US visitor visa also called tourist visa or B2 visa. The photograph must meet certain US visa photo requirements. A studio can take the picture for you if you mention "photograph needed for US visa". Requirements for Digital Photograph Acquisition The image file may be produced by acquiring an image with a digital camera or by digitizing a paper photograph with a scanner.
Dimensions Image pixel dimensions must be a square, meaning the height must be equal to the width. Minimum acceptable dimensions are x pixels. Maximum acceptable dimensions are x pixels. Color Must be in color 24 bits per pixel in sRGB color space common output of most digital cameras. Compression The image may need to be compressed in order for it to be under the maximum file size. The compression ratio should be less than or equal to Requirements for Scanning a Photograph Print Size If scanning the image from a paper photograph, the size of the paper photograph should be at least 2 inches x 2 inches 51 mm x 51 mm square.
Resolution Printed photographs should be scanned at a sampling frequency of at least pixels per inch. Image Requirements Composition Content The image must contain the full face, neck, and shoulders of the applicant in frontal view with a neutral, non-smiling expression and with eyes open and unobstructed and directed at the camera.
All facial features must be visible and unobstructed. No extraneous objects, additional people, parts of the body below the applicant's shoulders, or other artifacts. The image must be from a recent within 6 months photo of the applicant.
Head Orientation Subject must directly face the camera. Head must not be tilted up, down, to the side, or toward the shoulders. Head must be centered within frame. Background Subject must be surrounded by a plain, light-colored background with no distracting shadows on the subject or background.
Focus The entire face must be in focus and not overly sharpened. Color Image must be in color 24 bits per pixel. Black and white photos are not acceptable. Color should reproduce natural skin tones.
Color must be continuous tone no posterization.Other Visa Categories. Visa: Reciprocity and Civil Documents by Country. Visa Wizard. Visa Denials. Fraud Warning. What the Visa Expiration Date Means.
Automatic Revalidation. Countries with Limited or No U. Visa Services. A-Z Index. Directory of Visa Categories. Straight Facts on U. Customer Service Statement. Photo Requirements. Photo Examples. Digital Image Requirements. Photo Frequently Asked Questions. Photo Composition Template. Online Immigrant Visa Forms. DS Frequently Asked Questions. Administrative Processing Information.Discord rubberbanding
Visa Appointment Wait Times. Frequently Asked Questions. What is a U.4 way switching wiring diagram diagram base website wiring
About Visas - The Basics. Citizens and Spouses of Lawful Permanent Residents. Your Rights and Protections.
Ineligibilities and Waivers: Laws. Rights and Protections for Temporary Workers. Advisory Opinions. Fees for Visa Services. Treaty Countries. Fees and Reciprocity Tables. Temporary Reciprocity Schedule. Presidential Proclamations. Country Acronyms. Reciprocity: What's New? Borders: Biometrics.Please Note: Some embassies or consulates no longer require you to upload a digital photograph while filling out the DS form. To learn more visit: Changes to DS Form. A digital photograph is required for each applicant while applying for a US visitor visa also called tourist visa or B2 visa.
The photograph must meet certain criteria. A studio can take the picture for you if you mention "photograph needed for Visitor Visa". The image file may be produced by acquiring an image with a digital camera or by digitizing a paper photograph with a scanner.
Image pixel dimensions must be a square, meaning the height must be equal to the width. Minimum acceptable dimensions are x pixels. Maximum acceptable dimensions are x pixels. Must be in color 24 bits per pixel in sRGB color space common output of most digital cameras.
The image may need to be compressed in order for it to be under the maximum file size. The compression ratio should be less than or equal to Arm yourself with travel medical insurance before you board your flight. If scanning the image from a paper photograph, the size of the paper photograph should be at least 2 inches x 2 inches 51 mm x 51 mm square.
The image must contain the full face, neck, and shoulders of the apppcant in frontal view with a neutral, non-smipng expression and with eyes open and unobstructed and directed at the camera. All facial features must be visible and unobstructed. No extraneous objects, additional people, parts of the body below the apppcant's shoulders, or other artifacts. The image must be from a recent within 6 months photo of the apppcant. Subject must directly face the camera. Head must not be tilted up, down, to the side, or toward the shoulders.Pre and post test examples
Head must be centered within frame. Subject must be surrounded by a plain, pght-colored background with no distracting shadows on the subject or background.
Image must be in color 24 bits per pixel. Black and white photos are not acceptable. Color should reproduce natural skin tones. Color must be continuous tone no posterization. Fine facial features should be discernible. Image must not be overly compressed the compression ratio used should be less than or equal to Digital or other alterations or retouching are not permitted.
When resizing, the aspect ratio of the image must be preserved no image stretching is allowed. No sunglasses or other items that obscure the face.
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